Suppression of J modulation can be achieved using the Perfect Echo to give pure absorption mode Lorentzian lineshapes. Combining the perfect echo with WATERGATE allows long, selective solvent suppression pulses to be used, giving a narrow suppression band while retaining clean NMR spectra.


Varian / Agilent
Pulse Sequence:
PEWGES.c (right click and chose 'save ... as')
Data from the paper “Perfecting” WATERGATE: clean proton NMR spectra from aqueous solution:
zip (right click and chose 'save ... as')

Pulse sequence:
PEW5 (right click and chose 'save ... as')

Pulse Sequence Diagram:

Perfect Echo WATERGATE (a) and Perfect Echo WATERGATE with Excitation sculpting enabled (b). Flags can be set in the Agilent pulse programme to perform either.


Adams RW, Holroyd CM, Aguilar JA, Nilsson M, Morris GA, “Perfecting” WATERGATE: clean proton NMR spectra from aqueous solution. Chem. Commun., 49 (2013), 358-360.

Please note that copyright restrictions prevent us from placing the pdf files on our website, however, in most cases we are allowed to distribute these via email so contact us if you need a copy.